Environmental factors that influence plant phenotypes include light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and fertilization. We aim to better understand how plant phenotypes respond to changes in these environmental factors and their interactions. This allows us to 1) determine plant stress responses and 2) identify optimal, efficient environmental conditions for specialty crops in controlled environments. We leverage capabilities of advanced plant growth chambers to generate research insights relevant to indoor vertical farms, greenhouses, and space exploration. Our research focuses on improvements in crop yield (photosynthesis), appearance (morphology and coloration), taste (organoleptic properties), and nutrition (nutrients and phytochemicals) to increase productivity, add value, and conserve resources.

Light conveys energy to drive photosynthesis, constitutes signals to steer morphology, and influences secondary metabolism. Crops grown indoors depend on electric lighting as the sole source of radiation, commonly from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In a vertical growing system, we use tunable, multicolored LED fixtures to study plant phenotypic plasticity in response to interactions of light quality (spectrum), light intensity (photon flux density), light duration (photoperiod), and plant age. This research aims to develop temporally optimized light regimens that increase light use efficiency, decrease the cost of lighting per plant, and achieve desirable plant phenotypes. In addition, we focus on interactions between light and root-zone factors in indoor hydroponic systems.

Many floriculture crops flower in response to the photoperiod (daylength). They are categorized as long-day plants (e.g., petunia) and short-day plants (e.g., chrysanthemum). When the natural photoperiod does not elicit desired flowering responses, photoperiodic lighting can be used at night to promote or inhibit flowering. We study how its spectrum, intensity, timing, and duration influence flowering time, stem elongation, flower characteristics, and leaf development. Our goal is to develop low-cost lighting strategies that help greenhouse growers control flowering and extension growth effectively and efficiently. Strategic regulation of flowering can increase greenhouse profitability and sustainability by streamlining crop production and scheduling, saving on labor and resources, and improving crop quality and value.


We work on a wide range of specialty food crops (e.g., leafy greens, culinary herbs, and fruiting crops) and photoperiodic floriculture crops. With a fundamental understanding of environmental plant physiology, our research generates applied knowledge to help indoor and greenhouse growers address crop production challenges and increase productivity and efficiency.